Profile of Childhood Epilepsies and Syndromes Seen in an Electrophysiology Laboratory in Southeast Nigeria

Christian Chukwukere Ogoke, Wilson Chukwuneke Igwe, Ifeanyi Innocent Ike, Edmund Ndudi Ossai

Abstract


Background: Epilepsy and other seizure disorders are highly prevalent in resource-poor countries. Electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an invaluable role in differentiating seizure types, epilepsy syndromes and choice of appropriate anti-epileptic drugs. This is critical for effective management of epilepsies including their prognostication. The profile of childhood epilepsies in our locality is unknown. This study was therefore carried out to ascertain the prevalent electro-clinical syndromes and epilepsy types, etiological factors and co-morbid conditions in children who had EEG in Owerri, Southeast Nigeria.

Methods: The clinical data including the Basic Data Sheet and EEG records of all children with epilepsy seen between January 2017 and December 2018 at the EEG Unit/Child Neurology Clinic of Mother Healthcare Diagnostics & Hospital, Owerri were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant data from each patient’s clinical history, physical examination, investigation findings and EEG diagnosis of seizure type and epilepsy syndrome were extracted and recorded.

Results: Out of 97 children with epilepsy, 57 were males and 40 were females giving an male/female (M/F) ratio of 1.4:1. Focal epilepsy (31%) was the most frequent epilepsy type, while benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE) (14%) was the most common epilepsy syndrome seen. West syndrome was the second most prevalent epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsy was of genetic etiology in 48 (50%) and 22 (23%) had a history of severe perinatal asphyxia. No co-morbidity was detected in 70 (72%) patients but among those with co-morbidity, communication disorder (12.4%) was the most frequent.

Conclusions: Focal epilepsies and syndromes of genetic etiology were the more prevalent epilepsy types and syndromes in our locality. Majority of the children had no co-morbid conditions but most of those with co-morbidity would require speech therapy. Epileptic encephalopathies were also frequent and this underscores the need to prevent severe perinatal asphyxia and central nervous system (CNS) infections.




Int J Clin Pediatr. 2019;8(2):32-36
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/ijcp344


Keywords


Childhood epilepsies; Syndromes; Etiology; Co-morbidities

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International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1255 (print), 1927-1263 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.        
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